Accessibility Tools
  • Lumbar Spine Anatomy

    The spine also called the back bone, plays a vital role in stability, smooth movement and protection of the delicate spinal cord. It is made up of bony segments called vertebra with fibrous tissue called intervertebral discs between them. The vertebra and discs form the spinal column from the head to the pelvis, giving symmetry and support to the body.

  • Cervical Spine Anatomy

    The spine, also called the backbone, plays a vital role in stability, smooth movement and protection of the delicate spinal cord. It is made up of bony segments called vertebrae with fibrous tissue called intervertebral discs between them. The vertebrae and discs form the spinal column from the neck to the pelvis, giving symmetry and support to the body.

  • Thoracic Spine Anatomy

    The thoracic spine is the central part of the spine, also called the dorsal spine, which runs from the base of the neck to the bottom of your rib cage. The thoracic spine provides the flexibility that holds the body upright and protects the organs of the chest.

Spine Conditions

  • Facet Joint Arthritis

    Facet joints, also called zygapophyseal joints, are synovial joints located at the back of your spine, connecting the vertebrae together. Normally the facet joints are lined by a cartilage and a membrane of synovium. There are two joints between each pair of vertebrae located on either side of the spine. The facet joints provide stability for the spine.

  • Lumbar Facet Joint Arthropathy

    There are two facet joints present between each pair of vertebrae, one on either side of the spine. Facet joints are synovial joints comprised of small, bony knobs arranged along the back of your spine. Two vertebrae are connected to each other through these knobs and form a facet joint. These joints are covered by a soft tissue called articular cartilage, which allows the smooth movement of the bones.

  • Degenerative Disc Disease

    Degenerative disc disease (DDD) refers to the gradual deterioration of the intervertebral discs between the vertebrae. DDD is a misnomer as it is not actually a disease but a condition that affects the strength, resilience and structural integrity of the intervertebral discs due to advancing age, trauma, injury, repetitive movement, improper posture or poor body mechanics. DDD is commonly seen in individuals over 50 years of age. Most of them are usually not aware of their condition until they are examined for some other related health condition.

  • Disc Herniation

    Disc herniation is a condition where the central nucleus pushes through the outer edge of the disc, causing a bulge that compresses the spinal nerves.

  • Radiculopathy

    The spinal cord is made up of a bundle of spinal nerves that run down the vertebral column, extending from the neck to the lower back. The spinal cord functions as a message carrier between the brain and different parts of the body and are protected from injury by the bones of the vertebral column. 

  • Sciatica

    The sciatic nerve is the longest nerve in your body. It begins in the lower back and extends through the buttocks down the back of each leg to the thighs and feet.

  • Spinal Stenosis

    Spinal stenosis is a condition caused by the vertebral column constricting and exerting pressure on the spinal cord or neural foramen (a bony tunnel through which a nerve exits the spinal cord).

  • Scoliosis

    Scoliosis is a condition characterized by the abnormal curvature of the spine that causes a deviation to one side. It causes a physical deformity, making the spine look like the letter “C” or “S” instead of the letter “I”. Scoliosis can affect either the mid or lower back. Scoliosis of the mid back is more common. Scoliosis can occur at any age. 

  • Kyphosis

    Kyphosis is a condition of abnormal curvature of the spine that causes rounding of the upper back or a hunchback. The thoracic portion of the spine normally has a C-shaped curve, but excessive forward curve in the spine leads to kyphosis. Kyphosis most commonly affects the thoracic spine, but can involve the cervical and lumbar portions too.

  • Spine Trauma

    Spine trauma is defined as an injury or damage to any region of the spine.  The spine extends from the neck to the lower back and consists of the vertebral bones which surround and protect the spinal cord. Damage to the spinal cord or spinal nerves can cause changes in sensation, strength, and other body functions.

  • Spine Tumors

    A spine tumor is the abnormal growth of uncontrolled tissues or cells in and around the spinal cord. Tumors can either be cancerous (malignant) or non-cancerous (benign). Tumors that begin in the spine are called primary spinal tumors. Tumors that spread to the spine from other parts such as the breast, prostate, lung, and other areas are called secondary spinal tumors.

  • Cervical Spondylosis

    Cervical spondylosis, also called arthritis of the neck, is an age-related medical condition characterized by deterioration of spinal joints, vertebrae, discs, and ligaments in your neck. 

  • Cervical Fracture

    Cervical fractures are common in motor vehicle accidents, sports activities and falls. The second, sixth and seventh cervical vertebrae are frequently involved in fractures, which may injure the spinal cord. 

  • Cervical Stenosis

    Cervical stenosis refers to the narrowing of the spinal canal that protects the spinal cord and its branching nerves. 

  • Cervical Disc Protrusion

    Cervical disc protrusion, commonly known as a disc bulge, occurs when the spinal discs and associated ligaments are intact, but may form an outpouching that presses on the spinal nerves. 

  • Cervical Degenerative Disorder

    Cervical degenerative disc disease (DDD) is a misnomer as it is not a disease but a condition that affects the strength, resiliency and structural integrity of the intervertebral discs due to increasing age, trauma, injury, repetitive movement, improper posture, or poor body mechanics. Cervical DDD is commonly seen in adults after 50 years of age and most of them are usually not aware of their condition until they are examined for some other health condition.

  • Cervical Disc Herniation

    Cervical disc herniation is associated with pain. The degenerative changes in the disc can result in a reduction in disc height which can cause compression of the spinal cord and the spinal nerves. In addition, the exuding disc matter causes pain and inflammation of the nerve due to chemical irritation.

  • Lumbar Degenerative Disc Disease

    Lumbar degenerative disc disease (DDD) is a common cause of lower back pain. Over time, these natural shock absorbers wear out and degenerate. Degenerative disc disease is not actually a disease but refers to the changes in the spine that occur as a part of the normal aging process. 

  • Lumbar Disc Herniation

    Lumbar disc herniation is the most common cause of lower back pain and leg pain (sciatica). Aging, injury or trauma may cause the annulus fibrosus to tear, resulting in protrusion of the nucleus pulposus. This may compress the spinal nerves and/or spinal canal. The bulging disc may even break open, releasing the gelatinous material, which is a chemical irritant, causing inflammation of the spinal nerves. 

  • Lumbar Radiculopathy

    Back pain is a common condition affecting approximately 80% of the population at some point in their lives. The area usually affected is the lower back (lumbar region) as it bears most of the upper body’s weight. Trauma to the spine, age and overuse can result in deterioration of the vertebral bones and joints or bulging of the discs. The resultant loss of space can lead to compression of the spinal nerve roots. Depending on the area being supplied by the nerve, symptoms are experienced in the lower extremities. Pain in the lower back may sometimes radiate to the legs. This is referred to as lumbar radiculopathy or sciatica. 

  • Lumbar Stenosis

    Lumbar stenosis is the compression of spinal nerves caused by the narrowing of the spinal canal. It is one of the common causes of lower back pain. Spinal stenosis can also affect the spine in the neck region. 

  • Lumbar Facet Joint Arthropathy

    A joint is a place where two bones contact each other. Arthropathy means any disease of the joints. Lumbar facet joint arthropathy occurs when the facet joints degenerate or wear out over time due to aging or arthritis.

  • Thoracic Myelopathy

    Thoracic myelopathy is a disorder resulting from severe spinal cord compression in the thoracic region. The spinal cord in this region typically gets compressed as a result of bulging or herniated discs, spinal trauma, or bone spurs causing severe pain and discomfort. Thoracic decompression surgery is one of the effective ways to treat thoracic myelopathy.

  • Thoracic Nerve Compression

    The spine is made up of several bones called vertebrae and the spinal cord runs through a passage or canal in the center of these bones. Nerve roots split from the cord and pass between the vertebrae into several areas of the body. When these nerve roots become compressed or pinched, it is referred to as spinal nerve compression.

  • Thoracic Outlet Syndrome

    When this passageway becomes compressed, the condition is termed as thoracic outlet syndrome. It generally occurs within the age group of 20 to 60 years and is more common in females than in males.

  • Failed Back Surgery Syndrome

    The main goals of spine surgery are to relieve pain and improve spine stability. Pain is usually relieved by taking the pressure off a compressed spinal nerve.

Spine Procedures

  • Cervical Laminectomy

    Laminectomy refers to the removal or cutting of the lamina (roof) of the vertebral bones to provide space for the nerves to exit from the spine. A cervical laminectomy is an operative procedure that involves the removal of bone at the neck (cervical spine) region to relieve pressure on the spinal nerves. It can also be performed to relieve the symptoms of the narrowed spinal canal known as spinal stenosis.

  • Cervical Foraminotomy

    Cervical foraminotomy is a surgical procedure performed to relieve the symptoms of a pinched or compressed spinal nerve by enlarging the neural foramen, an opening for the nerve roots to exit the spine and travel through the body. The neural foramen forms a protective passageway for nerves that transmit signals among the spinal cord and the rest of the body parts.

  • Artificial Cervical Disc Replacement

    Artificial cervical disc replacement is a spine surgery to replace a degenerated (deteriorated) disc in the neck with an artificial disc. The artificial disc, like the natural healthy disc, is used to replace the degenerated disc. It restores the height between the two cervical vertebrae, enlarging the neural foramen (nerve passageway in the spine) and relieving the pressure on the spinal nerves. This stabilizes the cervical spine and restores normal mobility of the neck.

  • Posterior Cervical Fusion

    Posterior cervical fusion (PCF), a surgical procedure performed through the back of the neck, involves joining or fusing two or more damaged cervical vertebrae. The fusion of vertebrae is also known as arthrodesis. Sometimes, metallic plates may be used for fixing the vertebrae, this is also known as instrumentation. 

  • Posterior Cervical Foraminotomy

    Posterior cervical foraminotomy is a surgical procedure performed through the back of the neck to relieve symptoms of a pinched or compressed spinal nerve by enlarging the neural foramen, an opening for the nerve roots to exit the spine and travel through the body, and creating more space for the spinal nerve to pass through. The neural foramen forms a protective passageway for nerves to transmit signals from the spinal cord to the rest of the body.

  • Minimally Invasive Cervical Discectomy

    A cervical discectomy or decompressive spinal procedure is an operative procedure that relieves pressure on the spinal nerves and/or spinal cord by partially or completely removing the intervertebral disc that is herniated and/or bony material (bone spur). Cervical discectomy can be performed using a minimally invasive approach if you are suitable.

  • Cervical Disc Replacement

    The cervical spine is located in the neck region and consists of seven bones arranged one on top of the other. Cushioning tissue called vertebral discs located between the vertebrae act as shock absorbers, allowing easy movement of the neck. Wear and tear and advancing age can damage these discs, leading to pain and disability.

  • Cervical Facet Blocks

    A facet block is a procedure in which a combination of a local anesthetic and a corticosteroid is injected into a facet joint. A cervical facet block prevents the transmission of pain signals from the neck.

  • Cervical / Lumbar Traction

    Traction or spinal decompression therapy separates the vertebrae and reduces the pressure on the nerves. Cervical/lumbar traction is a therapy that

  • Cervical Spine Fusion

    Cervical spine fusion is a surgery performed to fuse weak cervical vertebrae with adjacent vertebrae to provide stability and prevent injury to the spinal cord.

  • Thoracic Spine Decompression

    Thoracic spine decompression is a procedure to relieve pressure on the spinal nerves in the middle portion of the back. Spine decompression surgery is indicated in treating spinal stenosis. Spinal stenosis is the narrowing of the spinal canal caused by degeneration of the facet joints and the thickening of the ligaments.

  • Thoracic Corpectomy

    Thoracic corpectomy is a surgical procedure performed to relieve pressure on a nerve at the thoracic region (upper and middle back) by removing the source of the compression.

  • Thoracic Discectomy

    The human spine provides support to the body allowing you to stand upright, bend, and twist. The spine can be broadly divided into the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine. The thoracic spine lies in the mid-back region between the neck and lower back and is protected by the rib cage.

  • Posterior Thoracic Fusion

    Posterior thoracic fusion is a spinal fusion procedure performed through an incision on the back (posterior) of the patient in which two or more vertebrae of the thoracic spine (mid back) are joined together, eliminating any movement between them. This procedure is performed by placing bone grafts or bone graft substitutes in between the affected vertebrae to promote bone growth and eventually fuse the vertebrae into a single, solid bone. Spinal instrumentation or implants such as rods, plates, screws, and interbody devices may be used to stabilize the spine after fusion.

  • Thoracic Vertebrectomy

    The spinal cord passes through the vertebral column, which forms a bony protective cover. However, a spinal tumor can compress the spinal cord or spinal nerves, leading to pain, loss of sensation, and/or motor function in the part of the body supplied by the compressed nerve. Thoracic vertebrectomy is the surgical removal of the vertebrae to decompress the nerve and restore function.

  • Thoracic Laminectomy

    The vertebral column supports the back and protects the spinal cord that runs through it. The nerves that branch out from the spinal cord are also protected and pass through special passages created by each vertebral bone. However, degeneration or herniation (bulging out) of the intervertebral disc that cushions each vertebral bone, injury, bony outgrowths due to arthritis or tumors can compress the spinal cord and nerves, causing debilitating back pain and disability. Nerve compression at the thoracic section of the vertebral column or the chest region can be treated by a surgical technique called a thoracic laminectomy.

  • Thoracic Facetectomy

    he spinal cord passes through the vertebral column, which forms a bony protective cover. At the thoracic region (upper back), the spinal canal is especially narrow when compared to the neck and lower back regions, making it more susceptible to compression. Adjacent vertebrae articulate at two joints called the facet joints. They allow load-bearing and flexibility and stabilize the spine during bending and twisting. Degeneration of these joints can compress adjoining spinal nerves, causing pain and loss of sensation in the region the nerve supplies.

  • Thoracic Spine Fracture Repair Surgery

    Spinal fractures occur most commonly in the thoracic (upper back) and lumbar (lower back) regions, and at the thoracolumbar junction. Fractures in these regions can occur due to injury from falls, motor vehicle accidents, violent acts and sports accidents, and also from the degeneration of bones due to old age and disease (osteoporosis and tumors). Thoracic spine fracture repair surgery is a treatment option to repair spinal fractures.

  • Computer Navigated Thoracic Spine Surgery

    The spine is a complex 3- dimensional structure that is interspersed with a complex lattice of delicate blood vessels and nerves. Trauma to these structures during surgery is a big concern in spinal surgery. The complexity and increased need for precision in thoracic spine surgeries have led to the introduction of computers to assist in many spinal procedures. 

  • Thoracic Facet Joint Injection

    Facet joints are small joints present between the vertebral bones including the vertebral bones of the thorax (upper back). The bones in these joints are covered by cartilage and a capsule filled with synovial fluid surrounds the joint reducing friction. Thoracic facet joints can be affected by injury, mechanical stress or arthritis causing pain in the mid-back, chest and rarely the arms.

  • Thoracic Spine Decompression

    Thoracic spine decompression is a procedure to relieve pressure on the spinal nerves in the middle portion of the back. Spine decompression surgery is indicated in treating spinal stenosis. Spinal stenosis is the narrowing of the spinal canal caused by degeneration of the facet joints and the thickening of the ligaments.

  • Thoracic Corpectomy

    Thoracic corpectomy is a surgical procedure performed to relieve pressure on a nerve at the thoracic region (upper and middle back) by removing the source of the compression.

  • Thoracic Discectomy

    The human spine provides support to the body allowing you to stand upright, bend, and twist. The spine can be broadly divided into the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine. The thoracic spine lies in the mid-back region between the neck and lower back and is protected by the rib cage.

  • Posterior Thoracic Fusion

    Posterior thoracic fusion is a spinal fusion procedure performed through an incision on the back (posterior) of the patient in which two or more vertebrae of the thoracic spine (mid back) are joined together, eliminating any movement between them. This procedure is performed by placing bone grafts or bone graft substitutes in between the affected vertebrae to promote bone growth and eventually fuse the vertebrae into a single, solid bone. Spinal instrumentation or implants such as rods, plates, screws, and interbody devices may be used to stabilize the spine after fusion.

  • Thoracic Vertebrectomy

    The spinal cord passes through the vertebral column, which forms a bony protective cover. However, a spinal tumor can compress the spinal cord or spinal nerves, leading to pain, loss of sensation, and/or motor function in the part of the body supplied by the compressed nerve. Thoracic vertebrectomy is the surgical removal of the vertebrae to decompress the nerve and restore function.

  • Thoracic Laminectomy

    The vertebral column supports the back and protects the spinal cord that runs through it. The nerves that branch out from the spinal cord are also protected and pass through special passages created by each vertebral bone. However, degeneration or herniation (bulging out) of the intervertebral disc that cushions each vertebral bone, injury, bony outgrowths due to arthritis or tumors can compress the spinal cord and nerves, causing debilitating back pain and disability. Nerve compression at the thoracic section of the vertebral column or the chest region can be treated by a surgical technique called a thoracic laminectomy.

  • Thoracic Facetectomy

    he spinal cord passes through the vertebral column, which forms a bony protective cover. At the thoracic region (upper back), the spinal canal is especially narrow when compared to the neck and lower back regions, making it more susceptible to compression. Adjacent vertebrae articulate at two joints called the facet joints. They allow load-bearing and flexibility and stabilize the spine during bending and twisting. Degeneration of these joints can compress adjoining spinal nerves, causing pain and loss of sensation in the region the nerve supplies.

  • Thoracic Spine Fracture Repair Surgery

    Spinal fractures occur most commonly in the thoracic (upper back) and lumbar (lower back) regions, and at the thoracolumbar junction. Fractures in these regions can occur due to injury from falls, motor vehicle accidents, violent acts and sports accidents, and also from the degeneration of bones due to old age and disease (osteoporosis and tumors). Thoracic spine fracture repair surgery is a treatment option to repair spinal fractures.

  • Computer Navigated Thoracic Spine Surgery

    The spine is a complex 3- dimensional structure that is interspersed with a complex lattice of delicate blood vessels and nerves. Trauma to these structures during surgery is a big concern in spinal surgery. The complexity and increased need for precision in thoracic spine surgeries have led to the introduction of computers to assist in many spinal procedures. 

  • Thoracic Facet Joint Injection

    Facet joints are small joints present between the vertebral bones including the vertebral bones of the thorax (upper back). The bones in these joints are covered by cartilage and a capsule filled with synovial fluid surrounds the joint reducing friction. Thoracic facet joints can be affected by injury, mechanical stress or arthritis causing pain in the mid-back, chest and rarely the arms.

  • Lumbar Discectomy

    The lower back or lumbar region is often the site of pain due to its high mobility and weight-bearing. Spongy discs present between the vertebral bones of the spine help cushion the spine during stress and movement. These intervertebral discs in the lumbar region may undergo damage due to stress, causing them to herniate or rupture, and compress adjacent spinal nerves. This can lead to lower back pain, as well as pain, weakness, and numbness in the lower legs.

  • Lumbar Microdiscectomy

    Microdiscectomy is a surgical procedure employed to relieve the pressure over the spinal cord and/or nerve roots, caused by a ruptured (herniated) intervertebral disc. A herniated disc, common in the lower back (lumbar spine) occurs when the inner gelatinous substance of the disc escapes through a tear in the outer, fibrous ring (annulus fibrosis).

  • Lumbar Decompression

    Lumbar decompression is a surgical procedure performed to relieve pressure over the compressed nerves in the lower spine (lumbar region). 

  • Lumbar Laminectomy

    Lumbar laminectomy, also known as decompression laminectomy, is a spinal surgery performed to relieve excess pressure on the spinal nerve(s) in the lumbar (lower back) region. The purpose of laminectomy is to remove the lamina or roof of the vertebra and provide enough space for the nerves to exit the spinal canal (decompression).

  • Lumbar Foraminotomy

    A lumbar foraminotomy is a surgical procedure that decompresses the spinal nerves by removing bone and other tissues that obstruct the neural foramen.

  • Lumbar Corpectomy and Fusion

    Lumbar corpectomy and fusion is a surgical technique performed to remove the vertebral bone or disc material between the vertebrae to alleviate pressure on the spinal cord and spinal nerves (decompression) in the lumbar (lower back) region. The term corpectomy originates from the Latin word ‘corpus’ which means ‘body’ and the word ‘ectomy’ means ‘removal’. Spinal fusion is essential for spinal stability after the removal of vertebral bone and disc material to relieve the compression over the neural structure.

  • Lumbar Interbody Fusion

    Lumbar interbody fusion (LIF) surgery is a surgical technique that involves the removal of a damaged intervertebral disc and the insertion of a bone graft into the disc space created between the two adjoining vertebrae. Bone grafts promote healing and facilitate fusion. Screws and rods are used to stabilize the spine during the healing process. 

  • Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion (TLIF)

    Transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) is a type of spinal fusion procedure in which bone graft is placed between the affected vertebrae in the lower back (lumbar) region through an incision on the patient’s back. 

  • Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion

    Spinal fusion is a surgical technique that joins two or more vertebrae in the spine to minimize the pain caused by the movement of these vertebrae. The fusion of vertebrae in the lumbar portion of the spine is called lumbar fusion. This surgery can be performed as an open or minimally invasive procedure.

  • Minimally Invasive Lumbar Surgery

    Spinal fusion is a surgical technique used to join together two or more vertebrae in the spine and to minimize the pain caused by the movement of these vertebrae. The fusion of vertebrae in the lumbar portion of the spine is called lumbar fusion and the surgery can be done as an open or minimally invasive procedure.

  • Minimally Invasive Spine Surgery

    Minimally invasive spine surgery (MISS) is the latest technology available to perform spinal surgeries through small, less than one-inch-long incisions. It involves the use of special surgical instruments, devices and advanced imaging techniques to visualize and perform the surgery through such small incisions. 

  • Spine Deformity Surgery

    The spine or backbone provides stability to the upper part of the body. It helps to hold your body upright. It consists of several irregularly-shaped bones called vertebrae appearing in a straight line. The spine has two gentle curves when seen from the side and appears to be straight when viewed from the front.

  • Spinal Tumor Surgery

    A spinal tumor is an abnormal mass of tissue surrounding or found within your spinal cord and/or spinal column.

  • Image-Guided Spine Surgery

    The spine is a complex 3-dimensional structure that is interspersed with a complex lattice of delicate blood vessels and nerves. Trauma to these structures during surgery is a big concern in spinal surgery. The complexity and increased need for precision in thoracic spine surgeries have led to the introduction of computers to assist in many spinal procedures.

  • Outpatient Spine Surgery

    Outpatient spine surgery is an operative procedure that does not require an overnight stay at the hospital. It is also called ambulatory or same-day surgery. Improvement in surgical techniques, modern pain management, and rehabilitation protocols allows surgeons to perform certain operative techniques of the spine (from cervical to lumbar region), with a minimally invasive technique on an outpatient basis. 

  • Spinal Decompression

    Spinal decompression is a treatment to relieve pressure on one or many “pinched nerves” in the spinal column. It can be achieved either surgically or by non-surgical methods. Spinal decompression is used to treat conditions that cause chronic backaches such as herniated disc, disc bulge, sciatica, and spinal stenosis.

  • Fracture Stabilization

    A spinal fracture refers to a break in any of the bones that make up the spine. It can occur due to trauma such as a traffic accident, fall from a significant height or weakening of the bones due to osteoporosis or a tumor. The thoracic or lumbar spine (upper and lower back) are the most common locations for spinal fractures.

  • Spinal Nerve Blocks

    A spinal nerve block is the injection of an anesthetic and steroid medication around the spinal nerve root to diagnose or treat pain.

  • Anterior Cervical Discectomy with Fusion

    The vertebrae of the backbone are cushioned by intervertebral discs that act as shock absorbers and allow frictionless movement of your back.

  • Revision Spinal Surgery

    The goal of revision spine surgery is to reduce pain and resume normal activities. The revision spine surgery is performed in certain conditions such as re-herniation of a disc

  • Complex Spine Surgery

    Complex spine surgery is a procedure that involves six or more vertebrae of the spinal column, requiring six or more hours of surgery to correct a spinal deformity.

  • Kyphoplasty

    Balloon kyphoplasty is a spine surgery that relieves back pain caused by a vertebral compression fracture. The aim of balloon kyphoplasty is to relieve pain, stabilize the fracture and restore the vertebral body height.